Gravity be induced?" 1979
Stephen P. Goodfellow
politics are so vicious precisely because the stakes are so
small" - Oscar Wilde
Wife" Micropointillism on
canvas 3 x 5ft by Stephen Goodfellow, painted 1983. See paper
in lower right hand side of painting. The writing is an abstract of
"Can Gravity be Induced" It is quite discernable. Also, note the Sun
diagram with a segment of the photosphere removed showing the interior
I have created these pages proving date of authorship of my paper after a
particularly unpleasant episode in which I was accused by a
Mr. C Leshan of plagiarizing an
individual who, as it turned out, published sixteen years after
my paper was written and distributed.
energy in an effort in gather proofs of date and content, the individual
has since - grudgingly - retracted their accusation. After this
disgraceful behavior, said person attempted to justify not referring to the
very paper they had accused of being pirated arguing that it was not an
original idea, essentially reverse engineering their own argument.
Because of this episode, I have decided to create these pages so that the
veracity of date and content will not be in dispute.
I am quite comfortable with the possibility that some earlier author may
have had a similar idea and that I might have merely expended my energy
re-inventing the wheel. If that is the case I will reference them in my
paper. Since its writing, I have come across papers and explanations
that approximate some aspects of "Can Gravity be Induced?", but nothing to
date has been brought to my attention that parallels the content of said
Until this of accusation
of plagiarism, I have never heard of said individual or their work. Having read the papers
"proof" of my piracy, aside from being sixteen years too late,
said individual never once mentions the nature of high energy
plasmas in the work.
Frankly, I found it hard to understand how the accuser could even find common
ground in my writings, let alone accuse me of stealing.
The episode prompts me to
post this warning to scientists and academics who publish without making
reference to the original concept: Publishing concepts
Gravity be Induced?"
in a scientific or academic
journal without giving credit to the author will result in discovery. An
inability to perform a rudimentary web search for said subject before
publishing is no excuse.
Conception of "Can
Gravity be Induced?" In1976 I was starting to tinker with materials that was to culminate in
a medium of my own invention, and that of my co-researcher Lowell Boileau.
We named this invention Micropointillism, and this unique medium was to
become my chief source of income for over two decades.
The income and the leisure time it afforded, allowed me to pursue parallel
interests which I hitherto could not summon the resources to explore.
My main interest of leisure had for some time been astrophysics, and with
the extra free time I threw myself with greater enthusiasm in this
Through my studies, I
came slowly to realize that the Sun could not possibly function as a
nuclear furnace in which energy emanates from a dense central core.
Gradually, the shock and conflict which had battled for dominance within me
began to yield to another realization.
basic gravitational physics made sense, but the observations did not. I
could not understand how wiser and more knowledgeable individuals could still believe
in the contemporary solar model, when the
exterior temperature of the Sun was hotter than its interior. It is a
violation of thermodynamics. Sunspot depressions in the photosphere ought
not be darker and cooler, they ought to be hotter and brighter.
These are elemental observations had simply been swept under the carpet of
physics in the hope that somehow, someday, the observations would be
supplanted by newer, more favorable ones that would lend validity to the
core model. And if not? Where was always eloquent theory, perhaps devoid of
observation, but with no lack of scientific peers to review and validate
conjectures, so-called scientific papers bordering on mediocre fantasy, but
certainly not with any foothold in the world of empiricism.
Many individuals have passed through the crucible of fire and lost their faith in a god.
My fall from grace was a gradual loss of faith in the tenants
of astrophysical science, because scientific method was simply not being practiced. I
had become aware that large sections of the science community were devolving
priesthood, bent on devoting itself to its own self-perpetuation, even at the cost of
eschewing observational evidence.
This was not a house in which to worship,
my god was dead.
There was a choice to be made. Should I put faith in a physical doctrine that I had
understood and was comfortable with, or should I strip it all away and study
the observational evidence through new eyes - to create a paradigm, wholly my
I was my own outcast.
Once across that border into the unknown, observation
is the only guide, and the vista that unfolds is a pathless plain. Where the
outcast walks, this becomes the path. I was young, I was excited by the
My first attempt at an
explanation took close to three years, reading a voracious amount and
cajoling my mathematical friends to perform calculations for me - all,
as it turned out - towards a frustrating dead end.
The idea was simple and elegant: Was the sum total of the tidal output of
our solar system equal to the Sun's energy output? It is a fairly simple
F = G Mm/r2
Take into account all the planets in the solar system, figure the amount of F and convert it into E.
It was not to be.
The results fall short, being only 1/60th of the energy needed to equal the solar
output. I produced a shot paper on the subject named "Solaria" and then,
frustrated, filed the results away and concentrated on my artwork.
As it turned out, this exercise had not been in vain. In the course of my
first attempt I spent a lot of time absorbing fascinating concepts, becoming
familiar with the work of
Laplace and his work pertaining to vortices, his
opinions on pressure and gravity. I also became intrigued by the Sun's lack
of angular momentum, why should the Sun be rotating so slowly, while the
gaseous outer planets are rotating so fast? I read and reread books on
Johannes Kepler, Tyco Brahe, Newton, Eddinton - and got on with my life as a
In 1979, I was exhibiting at the "Bastard Gallery" in Chicago. My philosophy
of exhibiting was to circumvent the established galleries by finding a
vacant space, convincing the landlord to let me use the space for a month,
paint the walls, hang clamp-on lights and have an exhibition of work,
complete with an opening. I was poor, and to save money I would sleep and
live in the space for the duration of the exhibition. (I suddenly realize I
have approached astrophysics the same way!)
This particular space had very rudimentary plumbing so during my stay, a
friend of mine by the name of Alan Foster was kind enough to let me take a
bath at his apartment. On this particular bath day I noticed a Sky &
Telescope magazine in the rack by the tub so while taking a luxurious soak,
I thumbed through it and stumbled upon the spectacular, breath-taking
pictures shot by Voyager I.
Emerging from cold
bathwater two hours later my universe was turned inside-out, It was as if I
had been baptized. In those two short hours, I had become the recipient of
Although the pictures were of Jupiter and its moons, I felt for the first
time how intensely dynamic was the firmament. Years later, I came across the
which very much fits the mindset and framework around which the reasoning
for my paper was constructed.
My reasoning is simple.
All matter in the universe is animate and follows the tenants of life:
Survival, food, reproduction.
Our biosphere, the thin membrane shell that encompasses our planet, is
merely a mirror, a mimic of the universal forces of nature. Mark Twain put
"The Nature, which delights in periodic repetition in the heavens, is the
same nature which rules the affairs here on Earth. Let us not forget that
Looking into the
firmament, it seems to me that matter - the stuff of stars - is of great
import to them. It allows for the conversion from mass to energy. Assuming
that solar systems are part of the life-urge that, like food, matter is the
flesh and food of stars.
I reason that if a star
could, with the matter at its disposal, be able to produce more gravity,
this would be of great benefit, because it would be able to attract more
matter than could be accounted for by its given mass. If this is the case -
and the Universe has had a long time to figure this out - it is being done.
But how, and by what
In 1977 I started reading
about the nature of high energy plasmas, gasses so hot that the electrons
are stripped away from the protons and changing the behavior and nature of
the gas to such an extreme as to designate it as a fourth state of matter.
The work of Anthony Peratt came to my attention and I came to realize how
truly enigmatic high energy plasmas were - and still are. High energy
plasmas confound fusion researchers on a daily basis, their generated
magnetic fields effortlessly escaping across the confining magnets of
It dawned on me that
here was a possible means by which a sun might induce gravity. Within a
dynamo effect, what if stripped electrons and protons joined into like
camps, protons with protons, electrons with electrons.
If these individual particles are able to contribute their magnetic moment
to the whole, would that not be a significant amount of force?
If they were able to rush away from one another with significant force, would those camps perhaps be able to tease
the fabric of space apart?
I imagined a handful of marbles of the same charge and polarity suddenly let
go. Would they not fly apart with terrific force?
The best vacuums available to science come in the form of ion vacuum pumps,
there the vacuum chamber is continually swept clean with ions which pass
through the space, removing larger particles.
Although the ion pump is a crude attempt at obtaining an absolute vacuum,
what if this were to be done on a much, much larger scale where you had a
sizable amount of matter in the form of a rapidly rotating high energy
"Can Gravity be Induced?"
was first written and circulated in 1979. It has since had minor revisions,
chiefly dealing with means with which to verify the hypothesis. Further
editions of the paper were distributed in 1987 and
being an early communications enthusiast,
placed a copy of the paper on Compuserve that year.
You can also find my earliest
upload to my website of "Can Gravity be Induced?" at
archive.org, going back to December 20th, 1996.
Exhibition December 17th 1980 at Alvins, Detroit, MI was a venue
for "Can Gravity be Induced?"
My paper, "Can Gravity be
induced?" was pre-web and circulated to physicists, scientists, friends and acquaintances.
My exhibition of December 17th, 1980 at Alvin's was named "Solarium"
that consisted of a slide-show in which I
explained the idea in detail, as well as and distributing the paper. In the art world, an
exhibition is the equivalent to that of that of publishing in the
scientific world. I can bring forward individuals who will attest
to being at this event and having read the paper at this time, including
several prominent physicists.
Having realized a fundamental
aspect of the natural universe and gradually discovering no one had
thought of it, prompted me to send post date stamped copies of my
induction and a non-space sun in letters addressed to myself. These
are postmarked and unopened as a precaution against plagiarists.
Recalling that my late father, a scientist who had his work stolen and
published by his mentor, gave me the impetus to take this
precaution. Letters such as these pertaining to the induction of gravity
range in date from 1979 - 1993. You can
see copies or rough
drafts of the letters here, and I will be glad to see them opened in
front of a registrar with two reliable witnesses for proof of content
and date posted,
Finally dear reader you may ask,
"Well Stephen, why haven't you published your thoughts in a scientific
journal? You've talked to plenty of scientists and distributed your
paper to them, why not publish?" Simple. I am not a trained
scientist and the proposal is so outrageous, so fundamentally at odds
with contemporary thought, that I would never be permitted to pass peer
review. However, I have corresponded with hundreds of individuals on the subject
over the decades, including prominent scientists. If you want to find
this paper these days, a simple web search will reveal its location