| Nature | Plasma - the Fourth State of Matter |
CAN GRAVITY be INDUCED?
Verifiable Observational Evidence for A Dynamic Non-Space Sun
| Abstract | Introduction | Non Space | Plasma | Neutrinos, Sunspots,
The Sun is inducing gravity without a corresponding quantity of mass. This phenomenon is brought about by a plasma in a magnetically unified state; a magnetically sustained 'non-space', an absolute vacuum held in place by the photospheric plasma shell.
Specific neutrino observations will verify this hypothesis.
Hydrogen/fusion core theories rest on the assumption that the mutual gravitational attraction of the Sun's individual atoms override all other acting forces, thereby causing the Sun's mass to contract. This in turn creates the internal pressures which inaugurate nuclear fusion within the Sun's core.
The scenario appears to be reasonably logical at a glance, but when viewed in the
light of available observations, it becomes obvious that the reasoning upon which the
hydrogen/fusion core theories rest is unsound.
These are some of the numerous inconsistencies that emerge:
These are some of the many observational facts that the core models are at odds
Since this paper is chiefly concerned with the verification of gravitational induction, only a brief summarization of 'Non Space' will be presented here.
On a rudimentary level, non-space behavior can be compared to a vortex, which is a 'low energy' example of this phenomenon. Milk added to a stirred cup of coffee outlines a vortex, which consists of a high pressure exterior and a low pressure center. The vortex behaves in a manner identical to that of the planets orbiting the Sun, in that both phenomena obey Kepler's Second Law of Planetary Motion(1). Objects placed closer to the center of the vortex orbit at a greater speed than objects further out from the center, in accordance with Kepler's Laws. The depression in the center of the fluid is thus a relative absence of matter producing an effect characteristic of gravity.
No observable space in the universe is a vacuum.(2) It is notable that most dictionaries describe a vacuum as: " A space devoid of matter." This definition is no longer sufficient description of a vacuum, since it appears that all known space contains some measure of mass/energy. Perhaps a more accurate description would be: " A vacuum is a volume devoid of space."
Since a higher pressure attempts to nullify a lower pressure, a hypothetical volume of absolute vacuum (non-space) will attract space.
Non-space is an absolute vacuum which induces gravity. This causes the exterior
mass/energy space to gravitationally implode upon non-space. Any given volume of non-space
has a temperature of absolute zero and is without time.
I believe that a magnetic field can exist in non-space, because it is a manifestation of mass/energy, but is not mass/energy in itself. In the following chapter I shall discuss how Non-space can be brought about by high energy plasmas in magnetically unified configurations.
To understand how non-space is possible, it is important to consider the rudiments of plasma behavior.
It was not long ago that physics classified matter into only three states: Solid, Liquid, and Gas.
Fairly recently (1960's) was it realized that a gas heated to a very high temperature does not obey the law of gasess; it displays a behavior unique to its own nature.(3) So different is this state from a regular gas that it has been classified as a fourth state of matter: a plasma.(4)
Because all stars consist of this super-hot gas, a large portion of the known universe exists in a plasma state, a condition of matter that scientists have only recently begun to understand.(5)
Put simply, plasma is a super-hot gas in which electrons are stripped away from protons. When placed in the vicinity of a magnetic field, particles of like polarity interact with, and reinforce the field. The magnetic force is 1 X 10 to the 39times stronger than the gravitational force.(6)
The observation that plasmas align and reinforce magnetic fields is at odds with the fusion/core theories which rest on the assumption that the mutual gravitational attraction of the Sun's individual atoms override all other acting forces.
However, the Sun consists of super hot gas, a plasma. If the Sun's plasma particles mutually interact within a unifying magnetic field, then it is the Sun's magnetic field and its associated particles that dominate, not the gravitational contraction of the Sun's mass.
It occurs to me that the disparity between plasma behavior and the gravitational solar core theory is understandable; the fusion/core models originated before the nature of plasma configurations were understood.
Fusion/core reasoning was founded on classical gravitational arguments. These are incomplete and invalid in a plasma universe.
The following discussion is a thumbnail rendition of how non-space can be possible
in a plasma universe. However, the specific mechanism I propose here is rudimentary and
speculative. It is not crucial to the overall concept:
Laboratory plasma configurations are truly astounding; they exhibit behavior bordering on the incredible.
Plasmas which are shot through a plasma gun ( a magnetic field ) and into a vacuum tube display well defined structures. Unfortunately, because of the speed (120 miles per second,) with which the plasma makes its way down the vacuum tube, photos reveal only a glimmering of the complexity that can be attributed to plasma structure.
Plasma structure can evolve into a helical flow composed of two separate streams, one consisting of electrons and the other of protons. The structure maintains a stable shape that can best be described as a cross between a smoke ring and a coiled spring turned in on itself.(7) When considering induced gravity, it is significant that electrons and protons can organize into separate camps, because like particles of the same charge repel one another.
It is my contention that when plasma particles of the same charge interact within a unified magnetic field, they fly apart leaving non- space in their wake. The 'nothing' left behind is a rip in the fabric of mass/energy/space and gravity is induced without a corresponding quantity of mass.
In this connection, it is interesting to note that the most advanced vacuum chambers employ ions - plasma electrons - to sweep the chamber clear of residual atmosphere.
Nonetheless, the comparison is crude; the best vacuum chambers can sustain a space fabric which is a 'foggy' 50,000 atoms per cubic centimeter, a far cry from an absolute vacuum.
1) Dr. Raymond Davis of the Brookhaven National Laboratory has been monitoring the emanation of neutrons from the Sun since 1967, and he has demonstrated that the flow of these neutrinos amounts to less than 1/3 of the amount anticipated by the current hydrogen fusion core theories.(8)
The deficiency in the neutrino count may be accounted for as follows.: Neutrinos originate from, or near, the Sun's surface. Since neither mass nor radiation can travel through the Sun's non-space interior, only the neutrinos produced on the side of the Sun facing us reach the Earth. Those neutrinos originating from the opposite side of the Sun cannot penetrate the Sun's non-space interior and so escape the Earth based observer.
2) When sunspots occur on the Sun's photosphere, the neutrino count drops.
Neutrinos have little or no charge and so cannot be significantly affected by the magnetic field of sunspots on the Sun's surface. If neutrinos originate from the Sun's core and travel outwards, then sunspots on the photospheric surface should have no effect on the neutrinos. These subatomic particles should pass to the observer unimpeded, yet the neutrino count is diminished during sunspot activity.(9)
I suggest that neutrinos originate near the Sun's photospheric surface.
Within sunspots there is decreased temperature and luminosity. Consequently, there is less fusion and therefore a likelihood of a drop in neutrino production; hence a decrease of neutrinos during sunspot activity.
Sunspots are depressions in the Sun's photospheric surface.(10) If the interior of a sunspot is closer to the Sun's supposedly active core, why does it get cooler and darker instead of hotter and brighter in these areas?
I suggest that the temperature and luminosity gradient drop with proximity to the non-space solar interior.
A whole new science has recently sprung up called Helioseismology. It can be observed that the Sun vibrates, rather like a bell. It is presently believed that solar resonances are propagated acoustically from the Sun's core.(11)
But is this so?
A blind-folded person would be hard pressed to tell whether he is being addressed directly or via a speaker.
Solar oscillations came as a complete surprise to solar theorists because one
does not usually associate structures that get denser towards their center as good
candidates for effective oscillators. Hollow structures, such as bells are good
oscillators; so too is the plasma shell of a non-space Sun.
A core sun makes for an inefficient oscillator: how would solar oscillations travel from a violent nuclear core, up through a somewhat inhomogeneous body and still retain precise geometrical configurations by the time they reach the photosphere?
We know from studying the powerful magnetic fields that erupt from sunspot depressions, that the Sun is capable of propagating interior magnetic fields reaching thousands of gauss.(12)
I suggest that stable geometrical oscillations occur because the sun's interior magnetic field causes the Sun's exterior plasma shell to vibrate on its 'surface', like the oscillations produced by an acoustic speaker.
A blind-folded person would be hard pressed to tell whether he is being addressed directly or via a speaker. The same is true for Helioseismology; the observer is blind to the interior and so the information is interpreted in the light of present concepts of solar theory.
Helioseismologists have discovered a condition in the Sun's shallower layers which
is at variance with conventional core models: Through frequency splittings resulting from
the Sun's rotation, it is observed that the rotation actually decreases with depth. It is
hard for any core theory to come to terms with this lack of angular momentum.(13) However, this observation is in tune with a
non-space sun; if the vacuum boundary upon which the photosphere rests has the strongest
gravitational potential, layers directly below the photosphere would be even more
constrained by the Sun's gravitational field and move slower.
A DYNAMIC 'NON-SPACE' SUN
Imagine a rotating gaseous giant, perhaps a little bigger than Jupiter. The gravitational sum of its mass causes intense pressure and so generates atomic fusion at its center. ( Just like the conventional hydrogen/fusion core model.)
The fusion reaction is matter in a plasma state. Rotation creates a dynamo effect producing a magnetic field which unifies the plasma, which in turn strengthens the field. In this state, protons and electrons are forced into like camps, where they repel one another.
The proto-Sun undergoes a transformation as its mass expands into a plasma shell.
However, the plasma can only expand outwards a finite distance, because it has
left non-space in its wake.
The attraction of mass/energy space towards non space causes a gravitational implosion.
The plasma has nowhere to go. It cannot go further inwards, because of the repulsive magnetic field; nor can it expand outwards, due to the gravity holding it back.
The solar hydrogen shell is under intense pressure at the vacuum boundary and this causes fusion reactions. This released energy maintains the plasma. Again, electrons are stripped from protons and the cycle repeats, thereby maintaining the Sun's radiation.
Let us now review the cycle:
|1)||A rotating primordial proto sun with strong gravitational compression in its core.|
|2)||Pressure inaugurates nuclear fusion.|
|3)||Plasma is created. The dynamo effect of the rotating proto-Sun supplies a unifying magnetic field for the plasma.|
|4)||Stripped Electrons and protons form into camps of like particles.|
|5)||Magnetic repulsion occurs. ( Outward flow of plasma .)|
|6)||The proto sun expands.|
|7)||Outward flow leaves non space in it's wake; induced gravitational attraction is brought about, restraining the further outward flow of matter.|
|8)||Magnetic repulsion and Induced gravitational attraction brings the solar shell into equilibrium.|
|9)||The Sun's photospheric shell is heated under pressure from magnetic plasma repulsion and induced gravitational attraction.|
|10)||The sequence then repeats, 2), 4), 5), 7), 8), 9), 10), and back to 2).|
1) and 6) are not repeated because the 'solid' proto-Sun has expanded into a shell, maintaining it's equilibrium in this configuration.
This concept is in harmony with the conservation of angular momentum, in that it
accounts for the relatively slow rotation of our Sun.
Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun, has by far the greatest portion of angular momentum of the Solar System.
If the Sun contracted from a cloud of hydrogen and essentially remained so ( as the core theories would have it,) then one would expect the center to rotate the fastest, just as a spinning ice skater will rotate faster if she draws her arms into her side. Yet the Sun completes only one rotation every 28-30 days. Jupiter rotates once in less than eight hours.
The non space scenario suggests that the early proto-Sun's spin was considerable while it was a dense ball of mass, but as it inaugurated nuclear fusion and expanded into a thin shell of plasma, it lost its angular momentum. Like an ice skater spreading her arms out and slowing down, the Sun's rotation is reduced.(14)
NEUTRINO RING EFFECT VERIFICATION
For this solar model to work, it requires that absolutely no mass nor radiation can travel through an absolute vacuum (non-space).
If the Sun's interior is impervious to neutrino penetration, it follows that any neutrinos issuing from the Sun can only come from the surrounding shell of matter.
Since neutrino production on that side of the Sun facing away from us does not penetrate the Sun, the observer sees only neutrinos from that half of the Solar disk which faces the observer.
Because of the Sun's spherical curvature, its horizon, or limb, would appear to be the source of highest neutrino production.
Thus, an observer capable of 'seeing' neutrinos, would look at the Sun and see a Ring Effect
When neutrinos collide with atomic nuclei, the scattering pattern from the collision
can determine the angle of neutrino approach.
It is therefore possible to determine the source of a given neutrino and distinguish it from other neutrinos. In this manner, it would be possible to build a neutrino 'photograph' of the Sun.
This would be very desirable, because it would determine the source of solar energy production.
If the majority of the neutrinos arrive from the core of the Sun, then the
Hydrogen/Fusion/Core theories are on the right track.
This will not be so.
I predict that the Ring Effect along the lines I have described will be observed, because the Sun's energy production is exterior to the Sun.
Feasibility of data gathering
We are entering an era of neutrino detector construction; USA, Russia, Italy, Japan and Australia have, or are in the process of building, neutrino detectors.
However, there is presently a problem with this approach. The angular size of the sun is about 1 degree. The scattered electrons maintain the original neutrino directions only within about 25 degrees (17). So while the general direction of the sun is obvious, they cannot tell if the neutrinos come from the core or the surface.
It remains to be seen if the limit (18) to discern solar neutrino origin is a technical or a natural limitation. At this point (07/05/99) I do not know, but I shall update this paper should further data be forthcoming.
This is the 1995 edition of this paper, the earliest version having been written in 1979. As new data has come to light and improvements for verification occur to me, I have gone about modifying and revising. Since the original, I have released five modifications of the paper to friends and acquaintances, this being the sixth. Throughout the revisions I have never veered from the original concept of the paper, namely that the interior of the Sun is non space, and that this non space induces gravity.
The chief change in this edition is the elimination of a somewhat more cumbersome means of verifying that the Sun has a non space interior replacing that abstract with what I believe to be a simpler and more eloquent "Ring Effect" observation.( p.8.)
According to Dr. Anthony Peratt, who is involved in plasma research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nobel Prize laureate Hannes Alfven believes that gravity results when electromagnetic forces neutralize each other. Dr. Anthony Peratt also informs me that no one, to his knowledge, has pursued plasma/gravity experiments to date. It is my fervent hope that plasma physicists will perform plasma/gravity experiments in the near future.
In the 'Suggested Reading' section, I make reference to H.E. Puthoff, who puts
forward tantalizing evidence for the "Casimir
Effect", a phenomenon where vacuum induces gravity.
I learned of H.E. Puthoff's papers and articles in 1990, and it is indeed striking ( and gratifying) to find ones own research paralleled.
I suspect that most astrophysicists will initially be reluctant to accept the
gravitationally inducing 'non space' concept and I can empathize with that skepticism and
reluctance which researchers may feel when asked to embrace such a radical idea. Indeed,
if I were reading a paper such as this written by someone else, I would probably have
strong reservations myself.
Remember however, that the foundation of the non-space model does not rest upon speculation or conjecture; on the contrary, the hypothesis depends on specific, and achievable means of observational confirmation.
If you have any questions or comments, please direct them to me here:
Web Site: http://goodfelloweb.com
"Double Layers and Circuits in Astrophysics" by Hannes Alfven; IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vo. PS-14, No. 6, December 1986
Astrophysics" by John N. Bahcall,
published by Cambridge University Press.
"The Plasma Universe" by Anthony L. Peratt, Sky & Telescope Feb. 1992.
"The role of particle beams and electrical currents in the plasma universe" by Anthony L. Peratt; Laser and Particle beams (1988) vol. 6, part 3, pp. 471-491.
"Evolution of the Plasma Universe: I. Double Radio Galaxies, Quasars, and Extragalactic Jets." by Anthony L. Peratt, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. PS-14, No. 6, december 1986.
"Evolution of the Plasma Universe: II. The Formation of Systems of Galaxies." by A. L. Peratt IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. PS-14 No. 6, Dec. 1986.
H. E. Puthoff, "Ground State of Hydrogen as a Zero-Point-Fluctuation-Determined State," Phys. Rev. D 35, 3266 (1987).
H. E. Puthoff, "Zero-Point Fluctuations of the Vacuum as the Source of Atomic Stability and the Gravitational Interaction, "Proc. of the British Soc. for the Philosophy of Science Intern'l Conf. "Physical Interpretations of Relativity Theory," Imperial College, London, ed. M. C. Duffy (Sunderland Polytechnic, 1988).
H. E. Puthoff, "Gravity as a Zero-Point-Fluctuation Force," Phys. Rev. A 39, 2333 (1989); Phys. Rev A 47, 3454 (1993).
H. E. Puthoff, "On the Source of Vacuum Electromagnetic Zero-Point Energy," Phys. Rev. A 40, 4857 (1989); Errata and Comments, Phys. Rev. A 44, 3382, 3385 (1991).
H. E. Puthoff, "Everything for Nothing," New Sci. 127, 52 (28 July 1990).
H. E. Puthoff, "The Energetic Vacuum: Implications for Energy Research," Spec. in Sci. and Technology 13, 247 (1990).
H. E. Puthoff, "Zero-Point Energy: An Introduction," Fusion Facts 3, No. 3, 1 (1991).
H. E. Puthoff, "On the Feasibility of Converting Vacuum Electromagnetic Energy to Useful Form," Intern'l Workshop on the Zeropoint Electromagnetic Field," Cuernavaca, Mexico, March 29 - April 2, 1993.
D. C. Cole and H. E. Puthoff, "Extracting Energy and Heat from the Vacuum," Phys. Rev. E 48,1562 (1993). See also Fusion Facts 5, No. 3, 1 (1993).
B. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. E. Puthoff, "Inertia as a Zero-Point Field Lorentz Force," Phys. Rev. A 49, 678 (1994). See also Science 263, 612 (1994).
B. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. E. Puthoff, "Beyond E = mc2," The Sciences (NY Acad. of Sciences) 34, 26 (Nov/Dec 1994).
H. E. Puthoff, "SETI, The Velocity-of-Light Limitation, and the Alcubierre Warp Drive: An Integrating Overview," Physics Essays 9, 156 (1996).
B. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. E. Puthoff. "Physics of the Zero-Point Field: Implications for Inertia, Gravitation and Mass," Spec. in Sci. and Technology 20 , 99 (1997).
H. E. Puthoff, "Space Propulsion: Can Empty Space Itself Provide a Solution?" Ad Astra 9 (National Space Society), 42 (Jan/Feb 1997).
H. E. Puthoff, "Can the Vacuum be Engineered for Spaceflight Applications?Overview of Theory and Experiments," Proc. NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, NASA Lewis Research Center, August 1997 (in press).
"How the Solar System Was Formed" by Daniel R. Wells; 21st Century,
July-August issue, 1988.
I would like to thank the following people who have taken the time to correspond or talk with me. Walter Kauppila, Physics Professor at Wayne State University.
Dr. Favro, W.S.U. Professor Chen, Professor of astronomy, W.S.U. Professor Teske, Physics, University of Michigan.
Jim Thele, Electrical Technician at G.M. Greg Menovick, Mathematics, W.S.U. Professor Wadehra, University of Michigan. Professor Cowley, Physics & Astronomy, Wayne State University.
Thanks to my Brother, Justin Meilgaard, for helping me with this paper.
My father, Morten Meilgaard who instilled in me the concept of scientific method. Special thanks to Lowell Boileau and Marvin Rieli to whom I owe the existence of this paper, and who have taken the brunt of my 'off the wall' ideas with immeasurable patience.
Finally, I would like to thank Dr. Anthony Peratt who's work in the plasma sciences is a continual source of inspiration for me.
(1) Alcyone Systems, Kepler's Laws of Planitary Motion Return
(2) "The Key to the Universe" 1978 by Nigel Calder. Penguin Pub. New York, p.26. and "Astrophysical Quantities" 1973 by C.W. Allen, 3rd ed. The Athlone Press, Univ. of London; p.265. Return
(3) "Solid Clues" 1985 by Gerald Feinburg, Simon & Schuster pub. p.23 Return
(4) "The ABC of Plasma" Fusion Magazine, by Riemannian, Nov. 1978 Return
(5) "Dictionary of Science" 1986 Barnhart Books, p.502 Return
(6) "Gravity" by George Gamow, Doubleday Publishers 1962, p.138 Return
(7) "The ABC of Plasma" Fusion Magazine, by Riemannian, Nov.1978p.42. Return
(8) Encyclopedia Britannica, "Science and the Future" Year Book, 1983; Return
'The phantom Neutrino' by James S. Trefil, p.224. 1992 Update: "At Last, Neutrino Results From GALLEX", by Ivars Peterson, Science News, June 13th, 1992 Vol. 141 No.24 p. 388
(9) News Notes, Sky & Telescope December issue, 1984 p.506 Return
(10) "Sunspots" 1979 by R.J.Bray and R. E. Loughhead. Dover Publications, p.4. Return
(11) Scientific American, Sept. 1985 "Helioseismology" (Article,) John W. Leibacher, Robers W. Noyes, Juri Toomre, Roger K. Ulrich; p.48-57. Return
(12) "A New Sun" by John A. Eddy, NASA 1979 (SP-402); p.27. Return.
(13) Scientific American, Sept. 1985 "Helioseismology" (Article,) John W. Leibacher, Robers W. Noyes, Juri Toomre, Roger K. Ulrich; p.56. Return
(14) "Design of the Universe" by Fritz Kahn, Klein Publishers, New York 1954 pp. 207-208, 56. Return
(15) That neutrinos can hypothetically pass through the Sun is confirmed in a conversation with Professor Wadehra from University of Michigan, dept. of Astrophysics (1/21/85). Return
Prof. Wadehra also agreed that it is possible to determine: (a) The source of a neutrino. The angle of neutrino approach can be determined by its collision with an atomic nucleus. Return
(b) A neutrino's energy level can be determined. (Hence a solar neutrino cannot be mistaken for a neutrino of a higher energy even though it originates from a nuclear event which is occulted by the Sun.) Return
(16) See "Sun," Encyclopedia Britannica, 1980, vol.17, p.178. Return
(17) "Measurement of the solar neutrino energy spectrum using
neutrino-electron scattering" Authors: The Super-Kamiokande collaboration Return
(18) "How Uncertain Are Solar Neutrino Predictions?"Authors: John N. Bahcall, Sarbani Basu, M. H. Pinsonneault Return